The department of state made of various functional areas & each of these areas has specific tasks they carry out, however they do not work in isolation. The different functional areas collaborate with each other from time to time thus the systems that support their activities also need to be able to collaborate & share information. Various systems that are used in the DoS do not collaborate or integrate well with other systems. A typical example is the use of E2 Solutions system which requires users to log in with a user name & password to access the system. These systems should be able to use the single sign on functionality to provide access to users since these systems run on the DoS infrastructure. Different software vendors are contracted to develop systems that are not compatible with each other even though they exist on DoS infrastructure. The DoS needs to review or develop strict standards which allow systems developed to harness the capabilities of the existing DoS infrastructure. The standards should also contain requirements for building systems that are interoperable, scalable & able to communicate with other systems. Most systems are cross-functional & cut across traditional boundaries of the functional areas. The procurement module in WebPASS has been taken out and replaced with ILMS (Ariba). Currently there are plans to integrate ILMS with WebPASS. Better integration of systems will improve efficiency & save costs. The cost involved in maintaining & managing individual systems is high & in some cases there is duplication of efforts & information. This leads to waste of time & money maintaining systems that perform similar tasks. DoS systems should have the ability to be extended to provide additional functionalities without contacting the vendor or rebuilding the entire system. Cost reduction also includes time saving & improved controls, scalability & improved maintenance delivery & cycle time reduction minimizing delays in reporting.