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Community Member
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Department of Homeland Security

Build Temp-to-Perm Neighborhoods after disasters

Temp-to-Perm Neighborhoods (TPN) offer an option to traditional FEMA Group Sites. Infrastructure for TPN’s such as roadways, water, sewer and electrical lines are installed so that they can be reused for the development of future permanent housing on the same site. The full extent of the permanent infrastructure such as asphalt paving or sidewalks need not be completed at the temporary use stage. While the initial cost of such infrastructure may be higher compared to a traditional group site, subsequent costs for infrastructure removal and site restoration are eliminated. The added value created for the property owner by the infrastructure left in place should reduce or eliminate the land acquisition expense to FEMA during the temporary use period.

A TPN is designed with the end-use in mind while considering the efficient use of the property initially to maximize housing opportunities for survivors. Lots are dimensioned to accommodate both temporary and permanent structures. The exact dimensions will depend on specific community standards and the intended temporary and permanent housing products.

As with traditional Group Sites, TPNs are appropriate when private and commercial temporary housing sites and other temporary housing such as hotels are inadequate to meet demand. TPNs, however, may be more appropriate in situations where the time required to repair or rebuild permanent homes will be protracted and where suitable property for traditional group sites is scarce or unacceptable by the community for temporary housing. A TPN approach facilitates securing sites and obtaining local government approvals by providing a clear exit strategy for the temporary housing facility and providing long term community infrastructure. By providing a head start on developing permanent housing, the temporary housing period can be shortened and housing recovery costs reduced. An illustration of the concept can be found at



Idea No. 3963